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Ixia Announces Black Books Ixia's Black Books include a number of IP and wireless test methodologies that will help you become familiar with new technologies and to understand the key testing issues associated with them.

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Dear Reader,

Ixia's Black Books include a number of IP and wireless test methodologies that will help you become familiar with new technologies and to understand the key testing issues associated with them. The Black Books can be considered primers on technology and testing. They include test methodologies that can be used to verify device and system functionality and performance. The methodologies are universally applicable to any test equipment. Step by step instructions using Ixia's test platform and applications are used to demonstrate the test methodology. This ninth edition of the book includes some key technologies and test methodologies.

Black Book

  • 802.11ac Wi-Fi Benchmarking
  • Advanced MPLS
  • Application Delivery
  • Carrier Ethernet
  • Converged Data Center
  • Converged Network Adapters (CNA)
  • Ethernet Synchronization
  • Higher Speed Ethernet (40/100GE)
  • IPv6 Transition Technologies
  • Long Term Evolution – Access
  • Long Term Evolution – EPC Network
  • MPLS-TP
  • Network Convergence Testing
  • Network Impairment
  • Network Security
  • Quality of Service Validation
  • SDN / OpenFlow
  • Test Automation
  • Testing Contact Centers
  • Ultra Low Latency (ULL) Testing
  • Video over IP
  • Voice over IP

At Ixia we know that the networking industry is constantly moving; we aim to be your technology partner through these ebbs and flows. We hope this Black Book series provides valuable insight into the evolution of our industry.

Errol Ginsberg, Acting CEO

Errol Ginsberg, Acting CEO

Higher Speed Ethernet

Abstract

Network equipment manufacturers and communications chip developers started delivering products in 2010 for the emerging higher speed Ethernet (HSE) market. Carriers, Service Providers, and Large Enterprises are preparing for deployment of 40 and 100-Gigabit Ethernet-based (100 GE) services. There are now public announcements of live, public network demonstrations, white papers published on public interoperability tests through the Ethernet Alliance, and early deployments of 100 GE by Carriers. Server manufacturers are implementing new high performance products with 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40 GE) performance levels and physical interfaces. Web appliances and security devices are capable of operating at 40 GE line rate speed. Globally, there are many companies bringing up new products and services for 40 and 100-Gigabit Ethernet. HSE is driven, in part, by the recent IEEE 802.3ba-2010 standard (802.3ba) that was ratified on June 17, 2010. The ratification was publicly announced on June 21, 2010 and is available at: http://standards.ieee.org/announcements/2010/ratification8023ba.html. The new standard will be eventually incorporated into the IEEE 802.3-2008 base standard.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Injecting a Synchronization Error in a PCS Lane Alignment Marker
  • Injecting a Continuous Sync Error
  • Injecting a Lane Marker Error
  • Injecting Multiple Lane Marker Errors
  • Injecting Multiple Errors into 66 bit Data Payload Word
  • 100 GE Broken Link and Recovery
  • PCS Transmit Lane Mapping and RX-Side Measurement
  • PCS Lane Skew Insertion and Measurement
  • Skew Adjustment Range and Rx-side Measurement
  • PCS Lane Transmit Error Injection and Receive Measurement Analysis

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Quality of Service Validation

Abstract

This document provides baseline test execution plans for running common QoS testing scenarios. It offers a comprehensive set of recommendations and guidelines for running test cases against various QoS policy implementations.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Layer 2 Quality of Service
  • Layer 3 Quality of Service
  • Impairment Testing For Layer 3 QoS Mechanisms
  • Automating Layer 3 Quality of Service

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Advanced MPLS

Abstract

The advanced MPLS testing booklet provides concrete examples and detailed steps showing how to utilize Ixia IxNetwork Emulation software and applications to achieve functional or performance test objectives for some key MPLS protocols.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • RSVP-TE P2P Full Mesh Scalability and Performance Test
  • RSVP-TE P2MP Functional and Scalability Test
  • P2MP Functional Test
  • P2MP Scalability Test
  • Layer 3 MPLS VPN Scalability and Performance Test
  • Layer 2 MPLS VPN - PWE Scalability and Performance Test
  • Layer 2 MPLS VPN - VPLS Scalability and Performance Test
  • Impairment Testing of Layer 2 MPLS VPN
  • Troubleshoot LDP or RSVP-TE LSPs with LSP Ping/Traceroute, and LSP BFD
  • Maintain and support a live BGP VPLS network using VCCV Ping and VCCV
  • How to Test L3VPN Inter-AS Option B
  • How to Test L3VPN Inter-AS Option C
  • Testing Seamless MPLS with Scalability
  • H-L3VPN Functional and Scalability Test
  • MVPN Scalability and Performance Test
  • mVPN Data MDT Switchover Performance Test
  • New: Introduction to EVPN and PBB-EVPN
  • New: EVPN and PBB-EVPN Single Home Test Scenario
  • New: EVPN and PBB-EVPN Multi-Home Test Scenario
  • New: EVPN/PBB-EVPN Label Stack and Label Resolution Procedures

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Converged Data Center

Abstract

The tests in this booklet detail methodologies to verify the performance of converged data center networking technologies. Subjects include data center Bridging (DCB), fibre channel over Ethernet (FCoE), fibre channel, storage I/O performance, layer 2 multipath (L2MP) fabrics, and virtualization.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Converged Data Center Ethernet Testing
    • New: Cloud Performance Testing
    • New: Adding Impairment Delay to Data Center Testing
    • DCBX Functionality
    • FCoE Fabric Login Stress Test (with NPIV)
    • FIP Fabric Login Stress Test
    • FIP VLAN Discovery Stress Test
    • Converged Traffic Forwarding - FCoE and LAN Traffic (with QoS)
    • Converged Traffic Forwarding - FCoE and LAN Traffic (with PFC)
    • FCoE to FC Traffic Forwarding Test with End-to-End Flow Control (PFC and R_RDY)
    • PFC: Testing Mixed Traffic Flow Management
    • PFC: Measuring DUT's PFC Response Time and Quanta Accuracy
  • Network Virtualization Overlay Technology
    • New: Validate Traffic Forwarding over Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN) Gateway device
  • Layer 2 Multi-Path (L2MP)
    • Layer 2 Traffic Forwarding over Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL)
  • Storage Technologies
    • New: Performance Measurement of a NAS Target
    • Validate the iSCSI I/O Performance of SAN Array
    • Validate Priority Flow Control Performance with Converged Application and Storage Traffic
  • Converged Data Center Virtualization Testing
    • Basic Unicast
    • Basic Multicast

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Test Automation

Abstract

This document outlines methodologies and best practices for the automation of key components in an end-to-end test automation solution for IP systems. Following the methodologies in this guide will help to accelerate the testing cycle and increase test application engineer productivity and test tool utilization.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • IxN2X PPPoE Feature Test Automation Cookbook
  • DUT CLI Automation by Using Test Composer
  • Ixia Traffic Generator Automation by Using Test Composer
  • Leveraging Test Automation in a Vendor Selection Process
  • Leveraging SNMP Verification in an End-to-End Automation Process
  • Layer 2-3 Feature Test Automation Cookbook
  • Layer 4-7 Applications Automation Cookbook

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Testing Contact Centers

Abstract

This Contact Center IVR testing booklet provides several examples with detailed steps showing how to utilize Ixia Chariot Contact Center Lab software and applications to achieve functional and performance test objectives for VoIP functional and performance testing. The introduction describes the parameters affecting performance and the methods to measure them.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • New: Chariot Contact Center – IVR validation
  • New: Contact Center Performance under Telephony-DoS

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Video over IP

Abstract

This Black Book series focuses on testing video delivery platforms used in IPTV and OTT services. The test cases outline how to use Ixia's IxLoad™ solution with several core streaming protocols, including RTSP, RTP, IGMP, multicast, Flash™ Player technology, Silverlight® Player technology, Apple® HLS, with advanced MPEG2, H.264, AAC, and related audio/video CODECs. The types of video services being tested include linear broadcast (LTV), video on demand (VOD), and HTTP-based adaptive bitrate technologies for Over the Top (OTT) on-demand and live streaming.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • RTSP Media Server Testing
  • Basic VoD Server Interoperability
  • Large Scale RTP Video - 600,000 Streams
  • Large Scale RTP Video - 4.8 Million Packets per Second
  • Basic Flash™ Player Emulation
  • Flash Player User Actions - PAUSE, RESUME
  • Flash Player User Actions - PLAY and SEEK
  • Flash Player User Actions - Playback of Multiple Media Files
  • Flash™ Player Emulation – Secure streaming using RTMPE
  • Flash™ Player Emulation – Secure streaming using RTMPTE
  • Basic Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming Client
  • Adobe® HTTP Dynamic Streaming with Pre-selected or Automatic Adaptive Bitrate Shifting
  • Basic Silverlight® Smooth Streaming Client
  • Silverlight® Smooth Streaming with Bitrate Shifts
  • Basic HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) Client
  • HTTP Live Streaming with Adaptive Bitrate Shifting

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Network Security

Abstract

Network security is essential for homes, government organizations, and enterprises of all sizes. The number and types of attacks are enormous and the devices used to defend against them are necessarily complex. This book provides an overview of network security and covers test methodologies that can be used to assess the effectiveness and performance impact of IPS/IDS, UTMs, and new generation firewalls while they are attacked using threats that include DoS/DDoS, exploits based on known vulnerabilities, and malware. The last section of the book is dedicated on IPsec VPN test methodologies.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Measuring the Security Effectiveness of Intrusion Prevention Systems
  • Application Forwarding Performance under DoS Attacks
  • Mitigation of TCP SYN DDoS attack
  • Mitigation of ICMP Fragments DDoS Flooding attack
  • Mitigation of IP Short Fragments Flooding DDoS attack
  • Mitigation of a DDoS MIX pattern using even test objective distribution over same test interface
  • Mitigation of a DDoS MIX pattern using uneven test objective distribution over same test interface
  • IPsec - Data Forwarding Performance
  • IPsec - Tunnel Capacity Test
  • IPsec QuickTest – RFC2544 Throughput
  • IPsec QuickTest – Tunnel Setup Rate
  • New: IPsec Quick Test – Tunnel Capacity
  • New: Application Forwarding Performance under DoS Attacks with Network Impairment Added

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Long Term Evolution – Access

Abstract

This document covers the Long Term Evolution (LTE) Access wireless technology. The document presents a general overview of LTE technology market followed by key test scenarios for an eNode B, using IxLoad. LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is detailed in its own Black Book.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • IxLoad Scenarios:
    • Single UE attach with user plane data traffic
    • Multi UE, 1000 UEs configuration
    • Multiple UE Ranges – Multiple Activities
    • VoLTE
    • New: VoLTE Voice Call with Data in Background
    • New: Voice & Video VoLTE call
    • New: Channel Modeling Scenario

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Long Term Evolution – Evolved Packet Core Network

Abstract

This document covers the Long Term Evolution (LTE) wireless technology. The document presents a general overview of LTE technology market followed by a focused discussion on Evolved Packet Core (EPC) testing. It also includes multiple test cases based on Ixia's IxLoad application. LTE Access is detailed in its own black book. Test Methodologies in this book:
  • EPC: Throughput Test with High Control Plane (Signaling) Traffic
  • EPC: Constant BHCA
  • EPC: Small Packets and Multiple Bearers
  • EPC: Handovers
  • EPC: eNodeB plugin IDLE/Paging procedure using Subscriber model
  • VoLTE: Measuring quality of experience for voice calls in LTE
  • New: Wi-Fi Offload: Testing WAG/Wi-Fi Gateway in Isolation

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Application Delivery

Abstract

The focus of these test cases is to provide hands-on guidance on how to set up and execute a series of related tests that assess the impact on performance of a unified security device when enabling application and content aware features.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Maximum Connections per Second
  • Maximum Concurrent Connections
  • Maximum Transactions per Second
  • Maximum Throughput
  • Application Forwarding Performance under DoS Attacks
  • Impact of Inspection Rules and Filters on Application Performance
  • Application Filtering with Access Control Lists
  • Content Inspection
  • Web Security Filtering
  • Anti-virus and Anti-spam Filtering
  • Impact of Traffic Management on Application Performance
  • Impact of Increased Best-Efforts Traffic on Real-Time Traffic QoS
  • Impact of Varying Real-Time Traffic on Best-Efforts Traffic QoS
  • Maximum Capacity and Performance of DPI Devices
  • Measuring Max DPI Capacity and Performance with HTTP
  • Maximum DPI Capacity and Performance with Multiplay Traffic
  • New: Validate DPI Application Signature Database Accuracy with AppLibrary
  • Measure Data Reduction Performance of WAN Optimization Devices
  • New: Controlling Secondary HTTP Objective While Maintaining Predictable Concurrent Connection Levels.

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Voice over IP

Abstract

This booklet provides baseline test execution plans for running common VoIP testing scenarios. It provides a common set of recommendations and guidelines for running the test cases against various VoIP implementations.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Determining the Maximum Call Setup Rate (CPS)
  • Determining the Max Call Setup Rate for SIP-based Devices and Systems
  • Determining the Maximum # of Concurrent Calls
  • VoIP Quality of Service in Converged Networks
  • Subjective Quality of Voice
  • Determining the Maximum Transaction Rate for VoIP Protocols
  • NAT/PAT Performance Measuring by Using VoIP
  • Determining the Capacity of a VoIP to PSTN Gateway
  • Determining the Performance of a Session Border Controller
  • Measuring Quality of Experience for Voice Calls in LTE
  • Measuring Quality of Experience for Multimedia VoIP Calls

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Converged Network Adapter (CNA)

Abstract

This document presents a thorough methodology for testing the performance characteristics of a 10 Gbps converged network adapter (CNA) in a variety of operating environments. Co-authored by Emulex.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • TCP Throughput
  • UDP Throughput
  • Latency
  • Storage I/O Performance
  • Virtualized Environments

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Carrier Ethernet

Abstract

The tests in this book detail methodologies to verify the performance of Carrier Ethernet service enabling protocols. Subjects include Provider Bridges, Provider Backbone Bridges, Link OAM, Service OAM, E-LMI and Y.1564.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • New: Introduction to CE 2.0
  • Testing Provider Bridges (802.1ad) and Provider Backbone Bridges (802.1ah)
  • Provider Bridges 802.1ad E-Line Services
  • Provider Backbone Bridges 802.1ah E-LAN Services
  • Ethernet/Link OAM Discovery Functional Verification
  • Ethernet/Link OAM Event Notification
  • Ethernet/Link OAM Remote Loopback
  • Ethernet CFM – Fault Detection with Continuity Check Messages
  • Impairment Testing - Drop and Delay CCM Messages
  • Ethernet CFM - Fault Verification Using Loopback
  • Ethernet CFM - Fault Isolation Using Linktrace
  • New: Y.1731 - Frame Loss Measurement Test
  • E-LMI – Testing a Device as a Customer Edge (UNI-C)
  • SLA Configuration and Performance Testing per-EVC Using Y.1564
  • New: Testing CE 2.0
  • New: ELINE Service Attribute - Non-Looping Frame Delivery
  • New: ELINE Traffic Management – One-way Frame Loss Ratio Performance
  • New: ELINE Service Attribute - Non-Looping Frame Delivery Using IxNetwork
  • New: ELINE Traffic Management - One-way Frame Loss Ratio Performance using IxNetwork

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Ethernet Synchronization

Abstract

This document presents a thorough methodology for testing timing and synchronization over packet-based networks. Ethernet synchronization technologies, such as IEEE1588v2 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) are discussed in depth. Key scenarios describe synchronization protocols and clock quality testing of timing enabled networks and devices

Test Methodologies in this book:

Clock Quality testing using Ixia Anue 3500

  • G.8261 - Testing Timing Over Packet (Ordinary Clocks)
  • G.8262 - Testing Synchronous Ethernet Equipment Clocks
  • G.8262 – Wander Generation
  • G.8262 – Wander Tolerance
  • G.8262 – Wander Transfer
  • Boundary Clocks - PTP Timestamp Accuracy (Time Error)
  • Transparent Clocks – Correction Field Accuracy
  • Hybrid SyncE and PTP - SyncE islands with PTP connection
  • Hybrid SyncE and PTP - SyncE frequency and PTP time
Protocol Testing using Ixia IxNetwork and IxN2X
  • PTP Scalability by Using IxNetwork
  • PTP Scalability by Using IxN2X
  • PTP Best Master Clock (BMC) Selection by Using IxNetwork
  • PTP Best Master Clock (BMC) Selection by Using IxN2X
  • PTP Correction Factor Error by Using IxNetwork
  • PTP Correction Factor Error by Using IxN2X
  • ESMC Best Reference Port Selection by Using IxNetwork
  • ESMC Port Switching by Using IxNetwork
  • ESMC Failover (5-Second Rule) by Using IxNetwork

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IPv6 Transition Technologies

Abstract

This book covers various technologies that will assist networks as they transition from IPv4 addressing to IPv6 infrastructure. Included in this document are pertinent use cases, recommendations, and guidelines in testing network equipment for IPv6 transition technologies.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • DSLite - Maximum Sustainable Sessions
  • DSLite - Maximum Connections per Second
  • 6rd - Maximum Sustainable Sessions
  • 6rd - Maximum Connections per Second
  • Dual Stack PPP - Testing DUT as Dual-Stack BRAS
  • Dual Stack PPP - Testing DUT as Dual-Stack L2TP Access Concentrator
  • Dual Stack PPP - Testing DUT as Dual-Stack L2TP Network
  • DHCPv6 & DHCPv6-PD - Testing DUT as DHCPv6 Relay Agent
  • DHCPv6 & DHCPv6-PD - Testing DUT as DHCPv6 Server
  • New: Validating Dynamic Address Assignment in IPv6 Using SLAAC
  • PCP - Maximum Sustainable PCP Sessions

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MPLS-TP

Abstract

This Black Book provides an introduction to the MPLS-TP technology, its motivation, and business drivers. It presents a summary of MPLS-TP key features and some of the typical implementation challenges. It then details common test scenarios along with step-by-step procedures by using Ixia IxNetwork to achieve the test objectives.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Verify BFD with G-Ach/GAL over static MPLS-TP LSP or PW
  • Verify Y.1731/IETF OAM with G-Ach/GAL over static MPLS-TP LSP or PW
  • Verify linear APS switchover time with LSP/PWs and protection
  • Verify manual APS command functionality
  • Verify max MPLS-TP LSPs or PWs with 3.33ms CCMs using Y.1731 or BFD
  • Verify coexistence of MPLS-TP PWs with MPLS PWs

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Network Convergence Testing

Abstract

This Network Convergence Testing booklet provides various measuring techniques designed to characterize how quickly the DUT recovers from routes convergence or fail-over. It covers the relevant industry standards and explains how to apply them to obtain consistent benchmark test results.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • New: OSPF Routes Convergence Test
  • New: BGP RIB-IN Convergence Test

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Network Impairment

Abstract

Updated: This book provides use cases where network emulation is used to validate and verify the performance of services, applications, or devices under real world network conditions. Included in this document are pertinent use cases, recommendations, and guidelines for emulating real world networks in a lab test bed.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Impairment Testing For Layer 3 QoS Mechanisms using IxNetwork
  • Impairment Testing - Drop and Delay CCM Messages using IxNetwork
  • Impairment Testing of Layer 2 MPLS VPN using IxNetwork
  • Modifying packets to validate robustness using IxNetwork
  • Impairment Testing For Bandwidth Limitations using IxLoad
  • Impairment Testing For Real Time Applications using IxLoad
  • New: Capture and Replay Network Characteristics To Validate Application Performance using Ixia Anue
  • New: Verify Application Performance Using TIA-921/G.1050 Network Models using Ixia Anue
  • New: Verify Storage Disaster Recovery Fail Over using Ixia Anue

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Ultra Low Latency (ULL) Testing

Abstract

This Ultra Low Latency testing booklet provides several examples with detailed steps showing how to utilize Ixia IxNetwork emulation software and applications to achieve functional and performance test objectives for Ultra Low Latency testing. The introduction describes what parameters affect latency and how to measure them.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • ULL Testing Throughput and Latency using RFC 2544
  • ULL Measuring Latency over Time and enabling the Latency Histogram
  • ULLN Testing a Service during Service Activation or during Maintenance

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SDN/OpenFlow

Abstract

The tests in this booklet describe detailed methodologies to verify the functionalities and performance of SDN implementations including OpenFlow.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Introduction to SDN/Openflow
  • OpenFlow Switch Setup and Functional Test
  • OpenFlow Switch Forwarding Test
  • Switch Flow Failover Performance Test
  • New: OpenFlow Controller Scalability Test
  • New: Packet_out Rate Calculation

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802.11ac Wi-Fi Benchmarking

Abstract

This 802.11ac Wi-Fi benchmark testing booklet provides several examples with detailed steps showing an IxVeriWave user how to utilize Ixia IxVeriWave application to achieve comprehensive performance test analysis for 802.11ac access points.

Test Methodologies in this book:

  • Introduction to 802.11ac
  • Packet Loss Benchmark Test
  • Latency Benchmark Test
  • Throughput Benchmark Test
  • TCP Goodput Benchmark Test

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